Monday, March 31, 2008

Autosys - Job Scheduling

Autosys Job Management for UNIX

This guide will be helpfull in giving basic idea about what autosys is, defining jobs to AutoSys, monitoring and managing jobs.

Introduction to Autosys: AutoSys is an automated job control system for scheduling, monitoring, and reporting. These jobs can reside on any AutoSys-configured machine that is attached to a network.
An AutoSys job is any single command, executable, script, or Windows batch file. Each AutoSys job definition contains a variety of qualifying attributes, including the conditions specifying when and where a job should be run.

Defining Jobs :
There are the two methods you can use to create job definitions:
■ Using the AutoSys Graphical User Interface (GUI).
■ Using the AutoSys Job Information Language (JIL) through a command-line interface.

Autosys Jobs:

  • Job Types and Structure :
    There are three types of jobs: command, file watcher, and box.
    As their names imply, command jobs execute commands, box jobs are containers that hold other jobs (including other boxes), and file watcher jobs watch for the arrival of a specified file.
    In the AutoSys environment, the box job (or box) is a container of other jobs. A box job can be used to organize and control process flow. The box itself performs no actions, although it can trigger other jobs to run. An important feature of this type of job is that boxes can be put inside of other boxes.

Default Box Job Behavior:
Some important rules to remember about boxes are

  1. Jobs run only once per box execution.
  2. Jobs in a box will start only if the box itself is running.
  3. As long as any job in a box is running, the box remains in RUNNING state; the box cannot complete until all jobs have run.
  4. By default, a box will return a status of SUCCESS only when all the jobs in the box have run and the status of all the jobs is "success.
  5. By default, a box will return a status of FAILURE only when all jobs in the box have run and the status of one or more of the jobs is "failure."
  6. Unless otherwise specified, a box will run indefinitely until it reaches a status of SUCCESS or FAILURE.
  7. Changing the state of a box to INACTIVE (via the sendevent command) changes the state of all the jobs in the box to INACTIVE.

  • Job States and Status :
    AutoSys keeps track of the current state, or status, of every job. The value of a job’s status is used to determine when to start other jobs that are dependent on the job. The job status is displayed in the job report generated by the autorep command, and in the job report you can view in the Job Activity Console

Following are the status of Autosys jobs:

  1. INACTIVE : The job has not yet been processed. Either the job has never been run, or its status was intentionally altered to “turn off” its previous completion status
  2. ACTIVATED :The top-level box that this job is in is now in the RUNNING state, but the job itself has not started yet.
  3. STARTING : The event processor has initiated the start job procedure with the Remote Agent.
  4. RUNNING : The job is running. If the job is a box job, this value simply means that the jobs within the box may be started (other conditions permitting). If it is a command or file watcher job, the value means that the process is actually running on the remote machine.
  5. SUCCESS : The job exited with an exit code equal to or less than the “maximum exit code for success.” By default, only the exit code “0” is interpreted as “success.” If the job is a box job, this value means that all the jobs within the box have finished with the status SUCCESS (the default), or the “Exit Condition for Box Success” evaluated to true
  6. FAILURE : The job exited with an exit code greater than the “maximum exit code for success.” By default, any number greater than zero is interpreted as “failure.” AutoSys issues an alarm if a job fails
  7. TERMINATED : The job terminated while in the RUNNING state. A job can be terminated if a user sends a KILLJOB event or if it was defined to terminate if the box it is in failed. If the job itself fails, it has a FAILURE status, not a TERMINATED status. A job may also be terminated if it has exceeded the maximum run time (term_run_time attribute, if one was specified for the job), or if it was killed from the command line through a UNIX kill command. AutoSys issues an alarm if a job is terminated.
  8. RESTART : The job was unable to start due to hardware or application problems, and has been scheduled to restart.
  9. QUE_WAIT : The job can logically run (that is, all the starting conditions have been met), but there are not enough machine resources available.
  10. ON_HOLD : This job is on hold and will not be run until it receives the JOB_OFF_HOLD event.
  11. ON_ICE : This job is removed from all conditions and logic, but is still defined to AutoSys. Operationally, this condition is like deactivating the job. It will remain on ice until it receives the JOB_OFF_ICE event.

The difference between "on hold" and "on ice" is that when an "on hold" job is taken off hold, if its starting conditions are already satisfied, it will be scheduled to run, and it will run. On the other hand, if an "on ice" job is taken "off ice," it will not start, even if its starting conditions are already satisfied. This job will not run until its starting conditions reoccur.
The other major distinction is that jobs downstream from the job that is "on ice" will run as though the job succeeded. Whereas, all dependent jobs do not run when a job is on "on hold"—nothing downstream from this job will run.

  • Starting Parameters :
    AutoSys determines whether to start or not to start a job based on the evaluation of the starting conditions (or starting parameters) defined for the job. These conditions can be one or more of the following:
    ■ Date and time scheduling parameters are met (it is or has passed the specified date and time).
    ■ Starting Conditions specified in the job definition evaluate to true.
    ■ For jobs in a box, the box must be in the RUNNING state.
    ■ The current status of the job is not ON_HOLD or ON_ICE.
    Every time an event changes any of the above conditions, AutoSys finds all the jobs that may be affected by this change, and determines whether or not to start them.

sample jil code / Writing jil code:

jil = Job information language
When using JIL to create a job definition, you enter the jil command to display the JIL prompt.

Runs the Job Information Language (JIL) processor to add, update, and delete AutoSys jobs, machines, monitors, and reports. Also used to insert one-time job override definitions.


/* ----------------- SAP_UAT_MU03_C ----------------- */
insert_job: SAP_UAT_MU03_C job_type: c

command: /local/SAP/

machine: MU03-UAT

owner: admin@MU03-UAT

permission: gx,wx,mx,me

days_of_week: all

start_times: "15:00, 14:00"

description: "Job used for Run testing of process"

alarm_if_fail: 1

max_exit_success: 1
The above example is a simple jil code of autosys which we have to write if we want any particular job to be thru autosys.

To Insert a new JIL code :
issue command "jil"
bash-3.00$ jiljil>>1>
"The following prompt will appear" copy paste the jil code u have made example of jil code below...........
At the end the "C" or "B" determines if the job is box job or child job.
if the jil is inserted properly successfull message will come if any errors are there the jil code contains some errors..
if successfull exit;
2. Other way is to create a temp file named temp.jil which contains jil code on autosys server: give command.

bash-3.00$ jil<>

Functional Listing of AutoSys Commands :

This section lists which AutoSys commands to use for specific tasks. All commands are for both Windows and UNIX, unless otherwise specified.

  • Accessing Sybase : xql
  • Checking System Status : autoflags
    chase chk_auto_up
  • Converting cron to JIL (UNIX Only) : cron2jil
  • Defining AutoSys Jobs or Machines : jil
  • Defining Calendars : autocal, autocal_asc
  • Reporting Job Status : autorep
  • Starting AutoSys (UNIX Only) : eventor
  • Stopping AutoSys : sendevent

Using Autorep command:

Reports information about a job, jobs within boxes, machines, and machine status. Also reports information about job overrides and global variables.
autorep {-J job_name -M machine_name -G global_name} [-s -d -q -o over_num] [-r run_num]

autorep -J (job name here)

This will display a list of jobs with complete details with box/jobname, last/latest run date & time, status, exit code, etc.
Viewing JIL code for any Autosys job

autorep -J (job name here) -q

To obtain the underlying JIL (Job Interaction Language) source code for any Autosys job, run command:

To obtain the information of previous runs

autorep -J (job name here) -r (No of runs back) example : autorep -J (job name here) -r 1

would generate a report for the job run one runs back

Status Abbreviations
The following table lists the abbreviations used in the ST (status) column of the autorep report, and gives the status for each abbreviation.




sendevents to AutoSys for a variety of purposes, including starting or stopping AutoSys jobs, stopping the Event processor, and putting a job on hold. This command is also used to set AutoSys global variables or cancel a scheduled event.

sendevent is normally used with "-E" & -J option

-J job_name : Specifies the name of the job to which the specified event should be sent. This option is required for all events except STOP_DEMON, COMMENT, ALARM, or SET_GLOBAL

-E event :Specifies the event to be sent. This option is required. Any one of the following events may be specified:


Following are the example of sendevent command frequently used.


To start or force start a job manually using sendevent :

sendevent –E FORCE_STARTJOB -J "Job Name Here"

sendevent -E STARTJOB -J "Job Name Here"

To put jobs on OFF ICE or ON ICE :

sendevent -E OFF_ICE -J "Job Name Here"

sendevent -E ON_ICE -J "Job Name Here"


autostatus: Reports the current status of a specific job, or the value of an AutoSys global variable. Ex: autostatus -J job_name, -S instance

Perl Regular Expressions

Perl regular expressions quick start
This sections covers the very basics of understanding, creating and using regular expressions ('regexes') in Perl.

Simple word matching:

The simplest regex is simply a word, or more generally, a string of characters. A regex consisting of a word matches any string that contains that word:
"Hello World" =~ /World/; # matches
In this statement, World is a regex and the // enclosing /World/ tells perl to search a string for a match. The operator =~ associates the string with the regex match and produces a true value if the regex matched, or false if the regex did not match. In our case, World matches the second word in "Hello World", so the expression is true. This idea has several variations. Expressions like this are useful in conditionals:
print "It matches\n" if "Hello World" =~ /World/;
The sense of the match can be reversed by using !~ operator:
print "It doesn't match\n" if "Hello World" !~ /World/;
The literal string in the regex can be replaced by a variable:
$greeting = "World";
print "It matches\n" if "Hello World" =~ /$greeting/;
If you're matching against $_, the $_ =~ part can be omitted:
$_ = "Hello World";
print "It matches\n" if /World/;
Finally, the // default delimiters for a match can be changed to arbitrary delimiters by putting an 'm'
out front:
"Hello World" =~ m!World!; # matches, delimited by '!'
"Hello World" =~ m{World}; # matches, note the matching '{}'
"/usr/bin/perl" =~ m"/perl"; # matches after '/usr/bin',
# '/' becomes an ordinary char
Regexes must match a part of the string exactly in order for the statement to be true:
"Hello World" =~ /world/; # doesn't match, case sensitive
"Hello World" =~ /o W/; # matches, ' ' is an ordinary char
"Hello World" =~ /World /; # doesn't match, no ' ' at end
perl will always match at the earliest possible point in the string:
"Hello World" =~ /o/; # matches 'o' in 'Hello'
"That hat is red" =~ /hat/; # matches 'hat' in 'That'

Not all characters can be used 'as is' in a match. Some characters, called metacharacters, are
reserved for use in regex notation.The metacharacters are
A metacharacter can be matched by putting a backslash before it:
"2+2=4" =~ /2+2/; # doesn't match, + is a metacharacter
"2+2=4" =~ /2\+2/; # matches, \+ is treated like an ordinary +
'C:\WIN32' =~ /C:\\WIN/; # matches
"/usr/bin/perl" =~ /\/usr\/bin\/perl/; # matches
In the last regex, the forward slash '/' is also backslashed,because it is used to delimit the regex.
Non-printable ASCII characters are represented by escape sequences.Common examples are \t for a tab, \n for a newline, and \r for a carriage return. Arbitrary bytes are represented by octal escape sequences, e.g., \033, or hexadecimal escape sequences, e.g., \x1B:
"1000\t2000" =~ m(0\t2) # matches
"cat" =~ /\143\x61\x74/ # matches, but a weird way to spell cat
Regexes are treated mostly as double quoted strings, so variable substitution works:
$foo = 'house';
'cathouse' =~ /cat$foo/; # matches
'housecat' =~ /${foo}cat/; # matches
With all of the regexes above, if the regex matched anywhere in the string, it was considered a match. To specify where it should match, we would use the anchor metacharacters ^ and $. The anchor ^ means match at the beginning of the string and the anchor $ means match at the end of the string, or before a newline at theend of the string. Some examples:
"housekeeper" =~ /keeper/; # matches
"housekeeper" =~ /^keeper/; # doesn't match
"housekeeper" =~ /keeper$/; # matches
"housekeeper\n" =~ /keeper$/; # matches
"housekeeper" =~ /^housekeeper$/; # matches

Using character classes:
A character class allows a set of possible characters, rather than just a single character, to match at a particular point in a regex. Character classes are denoted by brackets [...], with the set of characters to be possibly matched inside. Here are some examples:
/cat/; # matches 'cat'
/[bcr]at/; # matches 'bat', 'cat', or 'rat'
"abc" =~ /[cab]/; # matches 'a'
In the last statement, even though 'c' is the first character in the class, the earliest point at which the regex can match is 'a'.
/[yY][eE][sS]/; # match 'yes' in a case-insensitive way
# 'yes', 'Yes', 'YES', etc.
/yes/i; # also match 'yes' in a case-insensitive way
The last example shows a match with an 'i' modifier, which makes the match case-insensitive.

Character classes also have ordinary and special characters, but the sets of ordinary and special
characters inside a character class are different than those outside a character class. The special
characters for a character class are -]\^$ and are matched using an escape:
/[\]c]def/; # matches ']def' or 'cdef'
$x = 'bcr';
/[$x]at/; # matches 'bat, 'cat', or 'rat'
/[\$x]at/; # matches '$at' or 'xat'
/[\\$x]at/; # matches '\at', 'bat, 'cat', or 'rat'

The special character '-' acts as a range operator within character classes, so that the unwieldy
[0123456789] and []become the svelte [0-9] and [a-z]:
/item[0-9]/; # matches 'item0' or ... or 'item9'
/[0-9a-fA-F]/; # matches a hexadecimal digit
If '-' is the first or last character in a character class, it is treated as an ordinary character.
The special character ^ in the first position of a character class denotes a negated character class, which matches any character but those in the brackets. Both [...] and [^...] must match a character, or the match fails. Then
/[^a]at/; # doesn't match 'aat' or 'at', but matches
# all other 'bat', 'cat, '0at', '%at', etc.
/[^0-9]/; # matches a non-numeric character
/[a^]at/; # matches 'aat' or '^at'; here '^' is ordinary
Perl has several abbreviations for common character classes:
\d is a digit and represents
\s is a whitespace character and represents
[\ \t\r\n\f]
\w is a word character (alphanumeric or _) and represents
\D is a negated \d; it represents any character but a digit
\S is a negated \s; it represents any non-whitespace character
\W is a negated \w; it represents any non-word character
The period '.' matches any character but "\n"
The \d\s\w\D\S\W abbreviations can be used both inside and outside of character classes. Here are some in use:
/\d\d:\d\d:\d\d/; # matches a hh:mm:ss time format
/[\d\s]/; # matches any digit or whitespace character
/\w\W\w/; # matches a word char, followed by a
# non-word char, followed by a word char
/..rt/; # matches any two chars, followed by 'rt'
/end\./; # matches 'end.'
/end[.]/; # same thing, matches 'end.'
The word anchor \b matches a boundary between a word character and a non-word character
\w\W or \W\w:
$x = "Housecat catenates house and cat";
$x =~ /\bcat/; # matches cat in 'catenates'
$x =~ /cat\b/; # matches cat in 'housecat'
$x =~ /\bcat\b/; # matches 'cat' at end of string
In the last example, the end of the string is considered a word boundary.
Matching this or that
We can match different character strings with the alternation metacharacter ''. To match dog or
cat, we form the regex dogcat. As before, perl will try to match the regex at the earliest possible
point in the string. At each character position, perl will first try to match the first alternative, dog. If dog doesn't match, perl will then try the next alternative, cat. If cat doesn't match either, then the match fails and perl moves to the next position in the string. Some examples:
"cats and dogs" =~ /catdogbird/; # matches "cat"
"cats and dogs" =~ /dogcatbird/; # matches "cat"
Even though dog is the first alternative in the second regex, cat is able to match earlier in the string.
"cats" =~ /ccacatcats/; # matches "c"
"cats" =~ /catscatcac/; # matches "cats"
At a given character position, the first alternative that allows the regex match to succeed will be the one that matches. Here, all the alternatives match at the first string position, so the first matches.
Grouping things and hierarchical matching
The grouping metacharacters () allow a part of a regex to be treated as a single unit. Parts of a
regex are grouped by enclosingthem in parentheses. The regex house(catkeeper) means
match house followed by either cat or keeper. Some more examples are
/(ab)b/; # matches 'ab' or 'bb'
/(^ab)c/; # matches 'ac' at start of string or 'bc' anywhere
/house(cat)/; # matches either 'housecat' or 'house'
/house(cat(s))/; # matches either 'housecats' or 'housecat' or
# 'house'. Note groups can be nested.
"20" =~ /(1920)\d\d/; # matches the null alternative '()\d\d',
# because '20\d\d' can't match
Extracting matches
The grouping metacharacters () also allow the extraction of the parts of a string that matched. For each grouping, the part thatmatched inside goes into the special variables $1, $2, etc.They can be used just as ordinary variables:

# extract hours, minutes, seconds
$time =~ /(\d\d):(\d\d):(\d\d)/; # match hh:mm:ss format
$hours = $1;
$minutes = $2;
$seconds = $3;
In list context, a match /regex/ with groupings will return the list of matched values ($1,$2,...).
So we could rewrite it as
($hours, $minutes, $second) = ($time =~ /(\d\d):(\d\d):(\d\d)/);
If the groupings in a regex are nested, $1 gets the group with the leftmost opening parenthesis, $2 the next opening parenthesis, etc. For example, here is a complex regex and the matching variables indicated below it:
1 2 34
Associated with the matching variables $1, $2, ... are the backreferences \1, \2, ... Backreferences are matching variables that can be used inside a regex:
/(\w\w\w)\s\1/; # find sequences like 'the the' in string
$1, $2, ... should only be used outside of a regex, and \1, \2, ... only inside a regex.

Matching repetitions
The quantifier metacharacters ?, *, +, and {} allow us to determine the number of repeats of a
portion of a regex we consider to be a match. Quantifiers are put immediately after the character, character class, or grouping that we want to specify. Theyhave the following meanings:
a? = match 'a' 1 or 0 times
a* = match 'a' 0 or more times, i.e., any number of times
a+ = match 'a' 1 or more times, i.e., at least once
a{n,m} = match at least n times, but not more than m times.
a{n,} = match at least n or more times
a{n} = match exactly n times
Here are some examples:
/[a-z]+\s+\d*/; # match a lowercase word, at least some space, and
# any number of digits
/(\w+)\s+\1/; # match doubled words of arbitrary length
$year =~ /\d{2,4}/; # make sure year is at least 2 but not more
# than 4 digits
$year =~ /\d{4}\d{2}/; # better match; throw out 3 digit dates
These quantifiers will try to match as much of the string as possible, while still allowing the regex to match. So we have
$x = 'the cat in the hat';
$x =~ /^(.*)(at)(.*)$/; # matches,
$1 = 'the cat in the h'
# $2 = 'at'

The first quantifier .* grabs as much of the string as possible while still having the regex match. The
second quantifier .* hasno string left to it, so it matches 0 times.
More matching
There are a few more things you might want to know about matching operators. In the code
$pattern = 'Seuss';
while (<>) {
print if /$pattern/;
perl has to re-evaluate $pattern each time through the loop. If $pattern won't be changing, use
the //o modifier, to only perform variable substitutions once. If you don't want any substitutions at all, use the special delimiter m'':
@pattern = ('Seuss');
m/@pattern/; # matches 'Seuss'
m'@pattern'; # matches the literal string '@pattern'
The global modifier //g allows the matching operator to match within a string as many times as
possible. In scalar context, successive matches against a string will have //g jump from match to
match, keeping track of position in the string as it goes along.You can get or set the position with the
pos() function. For example,
$x = "cat dog house"; # 3 words
while ($x =~ /(\w+)/g) {
print "Word is $1, ends at position ", pos $x, "\n";
Word is cat, ends at position 3
Word is dog, ends at position 7
Word is house, ends at position 13
A failed match or changing the target string resets the position. Ifyou don't want the position reset after failure to match, add the //c, as in /regex/gc.
In list context, //g returns a list of matched groupings, or if there are no groupings, a list of matches to the whole regex. So
@words = ($x =~ /(\w+)/g); # matches,
# $word[0] = 'cat'
# $word[1] = 'dog'
# $word[2] = 'house'
Search and replace
Search and replace is performed using s/regex/replacement/modifiers.The replacement is
a Perl double quoted string that replaces in the string whatever is matched with the regex. The
operator =~ is also used here to associate a string with s///. If matching against $_, the $_ =~ can be dropped. If there is a match, s/// returns the number of substitutions made, otherwise it returns false. Here are a few examples:
$x = "Time to feed the cat!";

$x =~ s/cat/hacker/; # $x contains "Time to feed the hacker!"
$y = "'quoted words'";
$y =~ s/^'(.*)'$/$1/; # strip single quotes,
# $y contains "quoted words"
With the s/// operator, the matched variables $1, $2, etc. are immediately available for use in the replacement expression. With the global modifier, s///g will search and replace all currences of the regex in the string:
$x = "I batted 4 for 4";
$x =~ s/4/four/; # $x contains "I batted four for 4"
$x = "I batted 4 for 4";
$x =~ s/4/four/g; # $x contains "I batted four for four"
The evaluation modifier s///e wraps an eval{...} around the replacement string and the
evaluated result is substituted for thematched substring. Some examples:
# reverse all the words in a string
$x = "the cat in the hat";
$x =~ s/(\w+)/reverse $1/ge; # $x contains "eht tac ni eht tah"
# convert percentage to decimal
$x = "A 39% hit rate";
$x =~ s!(\d+)%!$1/100!e; # $x contains "A 0.39 hit rate"
The last example shows that s/// can use other delimiters, such as s!!! and s{}{}, and even
s{}//. If single quotes are used s''', then the regex and replacement are treated as single quoted
The split operator split /regex/, string splits string into a list of substringsand returns that list. The regex determines the character sequence that string is split with respect to. For example, to split a string into words, use
$x = "Calvin and Hobbes";
@word = split /\s+/, $x; # $word[0] = 'Calvin'
# $word[1] = 'and'
# $word[2] = 'Hobbes'
To extract a comma-delimited list of numbers, use
$x = "1.618,2.718, 3.142";
@const = split /,\s*/, $x; # $const[0] = '1.618'
# $const[1] = '2.718'
# $const[2] = '3.142'
If the empty regex // is used, the string is split into individual characters. If the regex has groupings, then the list produced contains the matched substrings from the groupings as well:
$x = "/usr/bin";
@parts = split m!(/)!, $x; # $parts[0] = ''
# $parts[1] = '/'
# $parts[2] = 'usr'
# $parts[3] = '/'
# $parts[4] = 'bin'

Since the first character of $x matched the regex, split prependedan empty initial element to the

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